ZigBee Technology

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ZigBee Technology is considered as a specification for communication protocols, which are high level by using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard. It has a fixed rate of 250 Kbit/s and is suitable for the irregular and periodic data which is coming from a sensor or the input device. A traffic management system has been implemented which is based on ZigBee.

ZigBee is considered as a low-power, low-cost and wireless mesh network standard. It is the low-cost which helps the technology to be deployed in the wide range, in the monitoring and wireless control application and the low-power is allowing smaller batteries to have the longest life. The extensive range and high reliability are taken care by Mesh networking. The vendors of the ZigBee chip used to sell the integrated radios and the micro-controllers in the range of 60 KB to 256 KB flash memory. The network layer is supporting the star and tree network as well as generic mesh network.

Device Types:

There are three types of devices for ZigBee:

zigbee network

  1. ZigBee Coordinator: The most capable device. It coordinates between the root of the network and bridge to other networks. Each network has one ZigBee coordinator because this is the device which is starting the network basically. It is used to store the network information. It also acts like a trust center and repository for security keys.
  2. ZigBee Router: The router is acting as an immediate router which is used to pass data from one place to another.
  3. ZigBee End Device: It contains enough functionality which is used to talk to the parent node. It doesn’t have the functionality to relay data from the other devices. A ZED needs the minimum amount of energy. The manufacture expense is less in comparison to ZC and ZR.


The recent algorithm is used to build the protocols which are used to construct a low-speed ad-hoc node network automatically. The network can form a single cluster or a mesh. The beacon and non-beacon is supported by the current ZigBee protocols.


  • The power consumption is low and is implemented simply.
  • The battery life is very good.
  • It has active transmit or sleep.
  • It has Dual PHY of 2.4 GHz and 868/915 MHz.
  • The data rate is of 250 kbps, 20 kbps and 40 kbps.
  • It is being optimized for an application of low duty-cycle.


Data integrity and security are the main benefits of the technology. It has a list of devices which are trusted within the network. ZigBee uses the data encryption, which is having the symmetric key of 128-bit. The frame integrity is used in protecting data modification without the use of cryptographic keys. Sequential freshness is used to reject the frames of data which have been replayed. The network controller is comparing the value of the freshness from the last known value of the device. This Applies, information technology is used to reject if the freshness value was not updated to the new value.

Future Scope:

ZigBee has a great future scope. Research has claimed that it will give a good impact on home networking. It will also give a new revolution in the technology, which will completely change the wireless technology. The cost will be $5 for one chip. It may be possible that small memory size of the protocol will reduce the price to $2.

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There is no doubt that in future, the ZigBee technology will play an important role in the field of communication technology and computer. It will give the world a new view. ZigBee is designed for the sensors, remote controls and many other devices.

But, small data packets are needed to reduce the power consumption and increase life. The low cost of the development of this technology will help it to adopt market in an easy way.

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